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A transplant using cells from a healthy donor.
A transplant using the patient’s own cells. Bone marrow is collected, diseased cells removed and healthy cells returned to the patient.
Using the patient’s own "cleaned up" bone marrow
Found in the centre of all large bones. It is where primitive blood stem cells (blood stem cells) are produced. . Blood stem cells develop into all the blood cell components like platelets, red and white cells in the blood.
The use of chemical substances to treat disease. In its modern-day use, it refers almost exclusively to drugs that are used to treat cancer.
The person who donates their bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells for transplant to a patient.
The acceptance of the donor’s healthy blood stem cells when they are infused into the patient’s own blood stream. If they are engrafted, the donor’s blood stem cells then begin to produce normal blood cells.
If a donor chooses to donate their peripheral blood stem cells they receive an injection of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-SCF). This will activate and increase their blood stem cell production and encourage the cells to move from their bone marrow to their circulating blood where they will be collected for transplant to a patient.
Another name for the bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells that are taken from the donor and given to the patient.
Graft versus host disease. A patient’s immune normally identifies 'foreign' cells in their body, such as bacteria or viruses, and attacks them, helping to protect against infection. Sometimes the patient's new immune system recognises the patient as different from the bone marrow donor. As a result the donor's white cells, living in the patient, will attack the patient (its host).
Graft versus Leukaemia (GvL) is a beneficial immune response in which white blood cells from the donor attack and destroy patient leukaemia cells.
Study of the blood
The process of taking the bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells from the donor. The two procedures are bone marrow transplant or donation of peripheral blood stem cells.
human leucocyte antigen - This refers to the white blood cell (leucocyte) blood group. Just as red blood cells have A, B and O group, white blood cells have the HLA types and the success of a transplant depends mainly on HLA matching. There are at least 6 important HLA groups for bone marrow transplantation. Each of these groups in turn may have hundreds to thousands of variations. Hence there is a need to have as many donors in the bone marrow Register as possible to offer the best chance of finding a match.
The patient (recipient) who receives donated stem cells
Leukaemia is a cancer of the white blood cells. The four main types of leukaemia are:
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) - a cancer of immature lymphocyte cells - lymphoblasts. This is the most common form of leukaemia in children.
- Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) - a cancer of the immature myeloid cells. This disease occurs mainly in adults but can also affect children.
- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) - a cancer of the lymphocyte cells. The most common type of leukaemia affecting adults. This is very rare in Asians.
- Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) - a cancer of the mature myeloid cells. Uncommon in children.
Patient and donor have the same tissue (HLA) types.
Patient and donor have different tissue (HLA) types.
Peripheral blood stem cells
The blood stem cells that circulate in the blood.
Phlebotomists are specialists who collect blood from people for examination in laboratories. When they work with BMDP, they take small blood samples from volunteers at our donor recruitment clinics. The samples are then taken to our laboratories for testing.
The treatment of disease by radiation.
Red blood cell
A cell type present in blood involved in transporting oxygen throughout the body
A donor who is ‘blood-related’ to the patient.
The patient’s condition when their disease is 'on the mend'.
An individual’s tissue-type is defined by the characteristics of six genes (A, B, C, DRB1, DQB1 and DPB1), collectively known as the human leukocyte antigen group (HLA). Testing for HLA groups, known as “tissue-typing”, is usually performed on a small blood sample and involves analysing the genes that code for the HLA proteins.
Surgical transfer of living cells
The hospitals where the donors donate, and the patients receive, their bone marrow. For reasons of confidentiality and anonymity, the patient and their specific donor are always treated in separate transplant centres.
A donor who is not blood related to the patient. Approximately 70% of all patients in the UK who receive a bone marrow transplant receive it form an unrelated donor.
White blood cell
A type of cell present in blood involved in the immune response to fight infection.